- Chapter 1 Objectives After reading this chapter, students should be able to:
1. Name and explain major learning theories including behaviorism, constructivism, sociolinguistics, and information processing theory. (theory sort)
2. Name and describe the four cueing systems. (p. 13)
3. Discuss how to create a community of learners.
4. Describe a balanced approach to instruction. (p. 22)
5. Discuss ways to scaffold students' reading.(puzzle)
6. Describe an effective method of organizing a classroom for literacy instruction including ways to implement basal reading programs, literature focus units, literature circles, and reading and writing workshop. (p. 27)
7. Discuss three ways to differentiate instruction. (visual representation)
8. Describe the ways in which teachers use assessment to guide instruction.
- Chapter 1 Overview The goal of literacy instruction is to ensure that all students achieve their full literacy potential, and in that light, chapter one introduces eight principles of balanced literacy instruction. The principles are stated in terms of what effective teachers do, and they provide the foundation for the chapters that follow.
Principle 1: Effective teachers understand how students learn.
Principle 2: Effective teachers support students’ use of the cueing systems.
Principle 3: Effective teachers create a community of learners.
Principle 4: Effective teachers adopt a balanced approach to instruction.
Principle 5: Effective teachers scaffold students’ reading and writing.
Principle 6: Effective teachers organize for literacy instruction.
Principle 7: Effective teachers link instruction and assessment.
Principle 8: Effective teachers become partners with parents.
- Differentiating Instruction Create a visual representation depicting ways to differentiate literacy instruction. Include the following points:
Differentiating the Content
Differentiating the Process
Differentiating the Products
Points to include:
Choose instructional materials at students’ reading levels
Scaffold struggling readers with more explicit instruction
Have students create projects that engage students with literacy in meaningful ways
Use assessment tools to determine students’ instructional needs
Challenge advanced readers and writers with activities requiring higher level thinking
Monitor students’ learning and adjust instruction when they aren’t successful
Assess students using a combination of visual, oral, and written formats
Design projects that engage students with literacy in meaningful ways
Consider students’ developmental levels as well as their current grade placement in deciding what to teach
Provide instruction to individuals, small groups, and the whole class
Have students create projects individually, with partners, or in small groups
- Chapter 1 Focus Questions Consider the questions below as they read chapter 1.
1. In recent years there has been a great deal of controversy concerning the best ways to teach reading. On one side are the proponents of a skills-based or phonics approach; on the other side are advocates of a literature–based approach. What role should phonics play in elementary classrooms? Do teachers have to make a choice between the two approaches?
2. What steps can teachers take to establish an effective, collegial classroom environment? How can a group of children become a cooperative community of learners?
Be prepared to discuss these during class.